Client-Side Coding with React:

Lifting State to Parents



 Slides

Lifting State to Parents

  • React components can manage their own state
  • Often components need to communicate state to others
  • Siblings do not pass state to each other directly
  • State should pass through a parent, then trickle down

Boiling Point Calculator

function BoilingVerdict(props) {
  if (props.celsius >= 100) {
    return (
      <p>The water would boil.</p>;
    )
  }
  return (
    <p>The water would not boil.</p>
  )
}

Lifting State - Calculator Input

  • An element to collect input is needed
  • The input is passed to the BoilingVerdict Component
class Calculator extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.handleChange = this.handleChange.bind(this);
    this.state = {temperature: ''};
  }

  handleChange(e) {
    this.setState({temperature: e.target.value});
  }

  render() {
    const temperature = this.state.temperature;
    return (
      <fieldset>
        <legend>Enter temperature in Celsius:</legend>
        <input
          value={temperature}
          onChange={this.handleChange} />

        <BoilingVerdict
          celsius={parseFloat(temperature)} />

      </fieldset>
    );
  }
}

CodePen

Lifting State - Another Input

  • The calculator should work for Celsius & Fahrenheit

What we want

class Calculator extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <TemperatureInput scale="c" />
        <TemperatureInput scale="f" />
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Extract TemperatureInput

class TemperatureInput extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.handleChange = this.handleChange.bind(this);
    this.state = {temperature: ''};
  }

  handleChange(e) {
    this.setState({temperature: e.target.value});
  }

  render() {
    const temperature = this.state.temperature;
    const scale = this.props.scale;
    return (
      <fieldset>
        <legend>Enter temperature in {scaleNames[scale]}:</legend>
        <input value={temperature}
               onChange={this.handleChange} />
      </fieldset>
    );
  }
}

Lifting State - Passing State

  • The components must be kept in sync
  • Each TemperatureInput holds it's own state
  • State can be moved to Calculator to achieve this

Remove State from TemperatureInput

class TemperatureInput extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.handleChange = this.handleChange.bind(this);
  }

  /* Send changes to the parent */
  handleChange(e) {
    this.props.onTemperatureChange(e.target.value);
  }

  /* Use READ-ONLY Props instead of State */
  render() {
    const temperature = this.props.temperature;
    const scale = this.props.scale;
    return (
      <fieldset>
        <legend>Enter temperature in {scaleNames[scale]}:</legend>
        <input value={temperature}
               onChange={this.handleChange} />
      </fieldset>
    );
  }
}

Lifting State - Parent State

  • Children call onTemperatureChange with new state
  • Parent updates state with setState
  • Children re-render

Parent Calculator Passes State to Children

class Calculator extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.handleCelsiusChange = this.handleCelsiusChange.bind(this);
    this.handleFahrenheitChange = this.handleFahrenheitChange.bind(this);
    this.state = {temperature: '', scale: 'c'};
  }

  handleCelsiusChange(temperature) {
    this.setState({scale: 'c', temperature});
  }

  handleFahrenheitChange(temperature) {
    this.setState({scale: 'f', temperature});
  }

  render() {
    const scale = this.state.scale;
    const temperature = this.state.temperature;
    const celsius = scale === 'f' ? tryConvert(temperature, toCelsius) : temperature;
    const fahrenheit = scale === 'c' ? tryConvert(temperature, toFahrenheit) : temperature;

    return (
      <div>
        <TemperatureInput
          scale="c"
          temperature={celsius}
          onTemperatureChange={this.handleCelsiusChange} />

        <TemperatureInput
          scale="f"
          temperature={fahrenheit}
          onTemperatureChange={this.handleFahrenheitChange} />

        <BoilingVerdict
          celsius={parseFloat(celsius)} />

      </div>
    );
  }
}

CodePen

Lifting State - Live Example

See the Pen djrKLj by Joshua Burke (@Dangeranger) on CodePen.

Lifting State - Conclusions

  • A single "point of truth" holds the state
  • Components communicate state by lifting it up to a Parent
  • Child components use a Parent updater function to lift state up
  • State flowing down makes state changes simpler to debug
  • Props should be derived from State

Links